CDiabetes.com Glossary

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  • A1C

    A blood test that measures blood glucose control for the previous 2-3 months. It may be used to diagnose diabetes, or to see how well diabetes is being managed. The lower your A1C, the better your glucose control. It can also be called “hemoglobin A1C,” “glycated hemoglobin,” or “HbA1c.”

  • ADA

    Acronym for the American Diabetes Association.

  • Alzheimer’s

    An age-related brain disease that makes your memory and thinking skills worse over time. There is no cure, but researchers are finding more effective ways of preventing the disease all the time. People with diabetes should be especially careful to keep their blood glucose level under control to avoid Alzheimer’s.

  • American Diabetes Association

    A non-profit dedicated to improving the lives of people with diabetes, and advocating for those whose rights have been infringed because they have the disease. You can find out more about them here.

  • Amputation

    When part or all of a limb (hands, arms, feet, legs) is removed, either by accident or surgically. People who have had diabetes for many years can develop nerve problems, and this can lead to their needing foot and leg amputations.

  • Blood Glucose Level

    The amount of sugar in your blood stream. In people with diabetes and prediabetes, blood glucose is too high.

  • Blood Lipids

    Fats, including cholesterol and triglycerides, that are found in your blood. A test to measure your blood lipids is called a “lipid panel.”

  • Blood Pressure

    The amount of force pushing against your artery walls as your heart pumps blood. It is measured in two numbers. For most people, a healthy blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmHg.

  • BMI

    Stands for Body Mass Index, which measures how much body fat you have based on your height and weight.

  • Carbohydrate

    One of the three major nutrients in food, also called a “carb.” It is found in high amounts in grains, starchy vegetables, legumes, fruit and sweets.

  • CDC

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, America’s national public health institute.

  • Cholesterol

    A fat that is made in your liver, and found in some foods (like eggs, meat, and dairy). It helps the body make hormones and Vitamin D, digest food, and fight off infections. When one type of cholesterol, called LDL, gets too high in the blood, it can raise your risk of heart disease. When another type, called HDL, is high, it can lower your risk of heart disease.

  • Complications

    Conditions or injuries that arise when you already have another disease. Eye disease, for example, is a common diabetes complication .

  • Diabetes

    A group of chronic diseases that causes your body to lose control of your blood glucose levels, which lets them get too high. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the body’s inability to produce insulin, a hormone that moves glucose into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells become resistant to insulin, meaning that it is difficult for them to get the energy they need.

  • Diabetes Educator

    Also known as a CDE, a diabetes educator is a healthcare provider who helps people manage their day to day diabetes care, or prevent the onset of diabetes. A CDE can be a doctor, nurse, dietitian or pharmacist.

  • Edamame

    Edamame (枝豆?) /ˌɛdəˈmɑːmeɪ/ or edamame bean is a preparation of immature soybeans in the pod, found in the cuisine of Taiwan, China, Japan, Indonesia and Hawaii. The pods are boiled or steamed and served with salt.

    Outside East Asia, the dish is most often found in Japanese restaurants and some Chinese restaurants but it also has found popularity elsewhere as a healthy food item. In the United States it is often sold in bags in the frozen food section of grocery stores.

    The United States Department of Agriculture states that edamame beans are “a soybean that can be eaten fresh and are best known as a snack with a nutritional punch”.

    Edamame and all preparations of soybeans are rich in carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients, particularly folates, manganese, and vitamin K (table).

    The balance of fatty acids in 100 grams of edamame is 361 mg of omega-3 fatty acids to 1794 mg of omega-6 fatty acids.

    Edamame beans contain higher levels of abscisic acid, sucrose, and protein than other types of soybeans,[citation needed] and may contain carotenoids.

  • Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    A group of vitamins (A, D, E and K) that are found primarily in meat, fish, eggs, and dairy (particularly butter). Because your body can store these vitamins in your tissues, it is possible to get too much if you get them from a supplement instead of from food.

  • Fiber

    A part of most plant foods that is difficult or impossible to digest, but which still has many health benefits.

  • Gestational Diabetes

    A type of diabetes that only affects pregnant women. It is often resolved after the baby is born, but should always be monitored by a healthcare provider.

  • Glucose Meter

    A small, portable machine used to measure the level of glucose in your blood stream. They usually use a very small needle to take a blood sample from your fingertip, and then show you your number on a small screen.

  • Hyperglycemia

    A high blood glucose level. Symptoms include feeling very thirsty and urinating frequently.

  • Hypertension

    The medical term for high blood pressure. If left untreated, hypertension can lead to heart disease or stroke.

  • Hypoglycemia

    A low blood glucose level. Symptoms include shaking, dizziness, feeling lightheaded, sweating, and anxiety. Hypoglycemia is very rare in people who do not have diabetes or prediabetes, so if you do not fall into these categories, these symptoms most likely have a different cause.

  • Insulin

    A hormone made in the pancreas that moves glucose from your blood stream into your cells, where it can be used for energy. People with diabetes either do not make enough insulin, or their cells have become resistant to it.

  • Low-carb Diet

    An eating plan that allows you to get about 20% of your calories from carbohydrates. It limits foods like grains, starchy vegetables (potatoes), low-fat dairy, fruit and sweets.

  • Low-fat Diet

    An eating plan that allows you to get about 10-15% of your calories from fat. It limits foods like whole-fat dairy, fatty meats, egg yolks, oils, nuts, and fried foods.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    A group of conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, insulin resistance, and abdominal obesity (too much fat around your waist) that together raise your risk of heart disease and diabetes. Like prediabetes, metabolic syndrome can be helped or even cured with good nutrition, exercise, adequate sleep, and stress reduction.

  • Metformin

    A common diabetes medicine used to treat high blood glucose levels. It may also be called “Glucophage” or “Fortamet.”

  • National Institutes of Health

    The U.S. Department of Health’s biomedical research agency. You can find out more about it here.

  • NIH

    Acronym for the National Institutes of Health.

  • Nutrient Dense

    The amount of nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fat, protein, and carbohydrate) in a food, compared to its number of calories, is called “nutrient density.” A food is nutrient dense when there is a high ratio of nutrients to calories.

  • Obesity

    Having a BMI of 30 or higher, which indicates an excessive amount of body fat.

  • Omega-3 Fats

    A form of liquid fat that the body needs, but cannot make on its own. It is found in oily fish, olive oil, walnuts, and some seeds.

  • Omega-6 Fats

    A type of liquid fat that is found easily in the typical American diet, in foods like soy, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and processed meats.

  • Overweight

    Having a BMI of 25-30, or too much body fat.

  • Pedometer

    A small machine you carry around with you that measures the amount of steps you take. It is usually small enough to fit in a pocket or clipped to a belt.

  • Pesco-Vegetarian

    A Pescatarian, or Pesco-Vegetarian, is a vegetarian who also consumes fish and seafood. This is a type of semi-vegetarian diet.

    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism

  • Potassium

    A mineral found in many fruits, dairy products, lean meat and beans. It helps your body regulate your blood pressure, maintain a healthy fluid balance and digest food, among other important jobs.

  • Prediabetes

    When your blood glucose level is too high, but not yet high enough to be considered full diabetes. Research has shown that prediabetes can be cured with lifestyle changes, like stress reduction, better nutrition, and regular exercise.

  • Probiotics

    A substance used to promote the growth of bacteria, which may improve digestion and immune health. Food sources include “live” yogurts and fermented vegetables, like pickles and sauerkraut.

  • Protein

    One of the three major food nutrients, found in high amounts in meat, beans, dairy (especially cheese), tofu, eggs, fish and mushrooms.

  • Risk Factor

    A behavior or attribute that can make a person more prone to disease or injury. Lack of physical activity, for example, is a risk factor for diabetes.

  • Sleep Apnea

    A common condition that causes short pauses in breathing, or more shallow breathing, during sleep. This leads to poor quality sleep, which can, in turn, lead to poor insulin function and other hormone problems. It is most common in people who are overweight.

  • Sodium

    A component of salt, found in many foods.

  • Stroke

    A medical emergency in which blood flow to part of the brain is interrupted, causing blood cells to die very quickly.

  • Trans Fats

    A type of fat that is usually artificial; it’s made by adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oil to make it solid. It is found in many packaged foods, especially baked goods, and is considered by nutrition experts to be the most dangerous kind of fat for your heart health.

  • Triglycerides

    A kind of fat found in your blood stream and stored in your fat cells. A healthy triglyceride level is generally lower than 150 mg/dL. A blood test can tell you what your triglyceride number is.

  • Water-Soluble Vitamins

    A group of vitamins that the body cannot store in its tissues, and are, therefore, generally safe in large doses. They are found mostly in fruit, vegetables and grains.

  • A1C

    A blood test that measures blood glucose control for the previous 2-3 months. It may be used to diagnose diabetes, or to see how well diabetes is being managed. The lower your A1C, the better your glucose control. It can also be called “hemoglobin A1C,” “glycated hemoglobin,” or “HbA1c.”

  • ADA

    Acronym for the American Diabetes Association.

  • Alzheimer’s

    An age-related brain disease that makes your memory and thinking skills worse over time. There is no cure, but researchers are finding more effective ways of preventing the disease all the time. People with diabetes should be especially careful to keep their blood glucose level under control to avoid Alzheimer’s.

  • American Diabetes Association

    A non-profit dedicated to improving the lives of people with diabetes, and advocating for those whose rights have been infringed because they have the disease. You can find out more about them here.

  • Amputation

    When part or all of a limb (hands, arms, feet, legs) is removed, either by accident or surgically. People who have had diabetes for many years can develop nerve problems, and this can lead to their needing foot and leg amputations.

  • Blood Glucose Level

    The amount of sugar in your blood stream. In people with diabetes and prediabetes, blood glucose is too high.

  • Blood Lipids

    Fats, including cholesterol and triglycerides, that are found in your blood. A test to measure your blood lipids is called a “lipid panel.”

  • Blood Pressure

    The amount of force pushing against your artery walls as your heart pumps blood. It is measured in two numbers. For most people, a healthy blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmHg.

  • BMI

    Stands for Body Mass Index, which measures how much body fat you have based on your height and weight.

  • Carbohydrate

    One of the three major nutrients in food, also called a “carb.” It is found in high amounts in grains, starchy vegetables, legumes, fruit and sweets.

  • CDC

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, America’s national public health institute.

  • Cholesterol

    A fat that is made in your liver, and found in some foods (like eggs, meat, and dairy). It helps the body make hormones and Vitamin D, digest food, and fight off infections. When one type of cholesterol, called LDL, gets too high in the blood, it can raise your risk of heart disease. When another type, called HDL, is high, it can lower your risk of heart disease.

  • Complications

    Conditions or injuries that arise when you already have another disease. Eye disease, for example, is a common diabetes complication .

  • Diabetes

    A group of chronic diseases that causes your body to lose control of your blood glucose levels, which lets them get too high. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the body’s inability to produce insulin, a hormone that moves glucose into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells become resistant to insulin, meaning that it is difficult for them to get the energy they need.

  • Diabetes Educator

    Also known as a CDE, a diabetes educator is a healthcare provider who helps people manage their day to day diabetes care, or prevent the onset of diabetes. A CDE can be a doctor, nurse, dietitian or pharmacist.

  • Edamame

    Edamame (枝豆?) /ˌɛdəˈmɑːmeɪ/ or edamame bean is a preparation of immature soybeans in the pod, found in the cuisine of Taiwan, China, Japan, Indonesia and Hawaii. The pods are boiled or steamed and served with salt.

    Outside East Asia, the dish is most often found in Japanese restaurants and some Chinese restaurants but it also has found popularity elsewhere as a healthy food item. In the United States it is often sold in bags in the frozen food section of grocery stores.

    The United States Department of Agriculture states that edamame beans are “a soybean that can be eaten fresh and are best known as a snack with a nutritional punch”.

    Edamame and all preparations of soybeans are rich in carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients, particularly folates, manganese, and vitamin K (table).

    The balance of fatty acids in 100 grams of edamame is 361 mg of omega-3 fatty acids to 1794 mg of omega-6 fatty acids.

    Edamame beans contain higher levels of abscisic acid, sucrose, and protein than other types of soybeans,[citation needed] and may contain carotenoids.

  • Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    A group of vitamins (A, D, E and K) that are found primarily in meat, fish, eggs, and dairy (particularly butter). Because your body can store these vitamins in your tissues, it is possible to get too much if you get them from a supplement instead of from food.

  • Fiber

    A part of most plant foods that is difficult or impossible to digest, but which still has many health benefits.

  • Gestational Diabetes

    A type of diabetes that only affects pregnant women. It is often resolved after the baby is born, but should always be monitored by a healthcare provider.

  • Glucose Meter

    A small, portable machine used to measure the level of glucose in your blood stream. They usually use a very small needle to take a blood sample from your fingertip, and then show you your number on a small screen.

  • Hyperglycemia

    A high blood glucose level. Symptoms include feeling very thirsty and urinating frequently.

  • Hypertension

    The medical term for high blood pressure. If left untreated, hypertension can lead to heart disease or stroke.

  • Hypoglycemia

    A low blood glucose level. Symptoms include shaking, dizziness, feeling lightheaded, sweating, and anxiety. Hypoglycemia is very rare in people who do not have diabetes or prediabetes, so if you do not fall into these categories, these symptoms most likely have a different cause.

  • Insulin

    A hormone made in the pancreas that moves glucose from your blood stream into your cells, where it can be used for energy. People with diabetes either do not make enough insulin, or their cells have become resistant to it.

  • Low-carb Diet

    An eating plan that allows you to get about 20% of your calories from carbohydrates. It limits foods like grains, starchy vegetables (potatoes), low-fat dairy, fruit and sweets.

  • Low-fat Diet

    An eating plan that allows you to get about 10-15% of your calories from fat. It limits foods like whole-fat dairy, fatty meats, egg yolks, oils, nuts, and fried foods.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    A group of conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, insulin resistance, and abdominal obesity (too much fat around your waist) that together raise your risk of heart disease and diabetes. Like prediabetes, metabolic syndrome can be helped or even cured with good nutrition, exercise, adequate sleep, and stress reduction.

  • Metformin

    A common diabetes medicine used to treat high blood glucose levels. It may also be called “Glucophage” or “Fortamet.”

  • National Institutes of Health

    The U.S. Department of Health’s biomedical research agency. You can find out more about it here.

  • NIH

    Acronym for the National Institutes of Health.

  • Nutrient Dense

    The amount of nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fat, protein, and carbohydrate) in a food, compared to its number of calories, is called “nutrient density.” A food is nutrient dense when there is a high ratio of nutrients to calories.

  • Obesity

    Having a BMI of 30 or higher, which indicates an excessive amount of body fat.

  • Omega-3 Fats

    A form of liquid fat that the body needs, but cannot make on its own. It is found in oily fish, olive oil, walnuts, and some seeds.

  • Omega-6 Fats

    A type of liquid fat that is found easily in the typical American diet, in foods like soy, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and processed meats.

  • Overweight

    Having a BMI of 25-30, or too much body fat.

  • Pedometer

    A small machine you carry around with you that measures the amount of steps you take. It is usually small enough to fit in a pocket or clipped to a belt.

  • Pesco-Vegetarian

    A Pescatarian, or Pesco-Vegetarian, is a vegetarian who also consumes fish and seafood. This is a type of semi-vegetarian diet.

    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pescetarianism

  • Potassium

    A mineral found in many fruits, dairy products, lean meat and beans. It helps your body regulate your blood pressure, maintain a healthy fluid balance and digest food, among other important jobs.

  • Prediabetes

    When your blood glucose level is too high, but not yet high enough to be considered full diabetes. Research has shown that prediabetes can be cured with lifestyle changes, like stress reduction, better nutrition, and regular exercise.

  • Probiotics

    A substance used to promote the growth of bacteria, which may improve digestion and immune health. Food sources include “live” yogurts and fermented vegetables, like pickles and sauerkraut.

  • Protein

    One of the three major food nutrients, found in high amounts in meat, beans, dairy (especially cheese), tofu, eggs, fish and mushrooms.

  • Risk Factor

    A behavior or attribute that can make a person more prone to disease or injury. Lack of physical activity, for example, is a risk factor for diabetes.

  • Sleep Apnea

    A common condition that causes short pauses in breathing, or more shallow breathing, during sleep. This leads to poor quality sleep, which can, in turn, lead to poor insulin function and other hormone problems. It is most common in people who are overweight.

  • Sodium

    A component of salt, found in many foods.

  • Stroke

    A medical emergency in which blood flow to part of the brain is interrupted, causing blood cells to die very quickly.

  • Trans Fats

    A type of fat that is usually artificial; it’s made by adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oil to make it solid. It is found in many packaged foods, especially baked goods, and is considered by nutrition experts to be the most dangerous kind of fat for your heart health.

  • Triglycerides

    A kind of fat found in your blood stream and stored in your fat cells. A healthy triglyceride level is generally lower than 150 mg/dL. A blood test can tell you what your triglyceride number is.

  • Water-Soluble Vitamins

    A group of vitamins that the body cannot store in its tissues, and are, therefore, generally safe in large doses. They are found mostly in fruit, vegetables and grains.

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